Frequently Asked Questions


Can old and new batteries be mixed in a single device?

No. Never mix old and new batteries in a single device—battery leakage may occur. Replace all batteries in a device at the same time.

Can different battery types be mixed in a single device?

No. Never mix battery types—such as include alkaline, heavy duty, and rechargeable—in a single device. Battery leakage may occur.

Can batteries be stored in devices for long periods of time?

No. Batteries should be removed from any device that will be stored for long periods of time.

Where should batteries be stored?

Batteries should be stored in a cool, dry location. Avoid temperature extremes. Keep batteries in original package until you are ready to use them.

How does the cold affect batteries?

Batteries can’t deliver much power when they are cold. You may find that the flashlight kept in your car in the middle of winter casts a faint beam. Let the batteries warm up to normal temperature, and try them again before you decide to replace the batteries.

How should I dispose of my alkaline batteries?

Alkaline batteries can be disposed in your household waste. Never dispose of batteries in fire, as this could cause an explosion


Are Rayovac NiMH batteries available in all sizes?

Rayovac Recharge Plus and Standard High Energy Rechargeable Batteries are available in AA, AAA, C, D & 9V sizes. All 5 sizes can be charged with the Rayovac Universal Charger. Rayovac Recharge Batteries are available in AA & AAA sizes. AA/AAA chargers are available for all 3 product lines.

Can Rayovac Rechargeable batteries be used in any device that takes Alkaline batteries?

Yes, you can use the comparable NiMH battery size in any device that uses alkaline batteries. For example, if you typically use AA alkaline batteries, you can use AA NiMH also.

Do Rayovac Recharge and Recharge Plus need to be charged right out of the package before using them?

No. New Recharge and Recharge Plus batteries are charged and ready to use, right out of the package.

Do Rayovac Rechargeable batteries need to be charged in a special charger?

No, Rayovac Rechargeable batteries will charge in any charger that can charge NiMH batteries, even a charger that you already own.

Do Rayovac Rechargeable Batteries need to be charged in a Rayovac brand charger?

No, all Rayovac Rechargeable Batteries can be charged in any charger. However, Rayovac chargers are recommended.

Why shouldn't you mix old batteries with new ones?

The performance of a battery-operated product is limited by the weakest of all the batteries in the device. One old or weak battery can cause poor product performance even if all the others are new or fully charged.

How many times can Rayovac's Rechargeable NiMH batteries be recharged?

They can be recharged hundreds of times! That is why using Rayovac's Rechargeable batteries can result in significant cost savings over any alkaline on the market.

The batteries get warm during charging. Is this okay?

Yes. The batteries will get warm during charging but will cool quickly after recharging. This is a normal occurrence and no cause for concern.

What do you recommend in place of Hybrid Rechargeable Batteries?

We recommend Rayovac Recharge Plus Batteries for the same great performance and low self discharge technology found in Hybrid.

Do Rayovac Rechargeable batteries have to be fully drained before recharging because they have "memory"?

No. There are absolutely no memory problems with Rayovac Rechargeable batteries. They can be recharged after a few hours of use or when convenient, with no effect on performance or battery life.


What’s the best type of battery for my hearing aid?

Zinc air batteries are ideal for hearing aids. With a unique construction that utilizes air from outside the battery, these batteries pack maximum energy into each cell. Using zinc air batteries in your hearing aid will give you clearer tones, fewer volume adjustments, and fewer battery replacements.

Why is there a tab on my battery?

Zinc air batteries uses air as a source of power, and the tab provides a seal that ensures freshness until the battery is ready for use. To activate the battery, simply remove the tab, wait one minute to allow air to activate the ingredients, and insert the battery into your hearing aid. (Note that replacing the tab when the battery is not in use will not extend the battery life.)

How long will my batteries last?

Battery life is determined by the type and amplification of your hearing aid, as well as the hours you wear it. Your hearing care professional can tell you the battery life to expect.

What’s the best way to store and care for my hearing aid batteries?

Store your hearing aid batteries at room temperature. Avoid temperature extremes, as heat will shorten the life of the batteries, and refrigeration is not recommended.

Metal objects such as coins and keys can short out batteries, so don’t carry batteries your pocket or purse. Always be sure to store and discard batteries in places that cannot be reached by infants or children.

If a battery is swallowed, see a doctor immediately. For recommended treatment you can call the National Button Battery Hotline at 202-625-3333.

For more information on hearing loss, call the-not-for-profit Better Hearing Institute at: 1-800-EAR- WELL (327-9355) Monday to Friday 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. EST.

What are the different hearing aid battery sizes?

The most commonly used hearing aid battery sizes are 10, 13, 312, and 675. Most manufacturers use an industry-standard color code to identify the battery size.

You may notice that different manufacturers often place different letters before or after the battery size. For instance, 13A or R13ZA may look different, but both codes represent size 13 batteries.

Do hearing aid batteries contain mercury?

Most manufacturers will remove mercury from hearing aid batteries by June 2011. (While household batteries (such as alkaline) containing mercury were eliminated in the mid-1990s, button-cell batteries like those for hearing aids were exempt.)

Battery Safety Tips

Each year in the US thousands of people swallow button cell batteries, including hearing aid batteries.  In most cases the battery passes through the body; however, sometimes they can get lodged in the body and cause serious problems.

It is important to make sure to correctly dispose of your hearing aid batteries.  Follow these tips to help prevent accidental ingestion.

  • Keep out of the reach of children
  • Make sure all battery compartments of games and toys are secure
  • Do not leave batteries out where they can be mistaken for medicines or pills
  • Do not put batteries near the mouth
If a battery has been swallowed call Poison Control immediately at 1-800-222-1222.

For more information about battery safety please visit:

Is your question still not answered?

Email a Hearing Aid Battery Expert!


In what applications will the Rayovac 9V Lithium battery last 10 years?

Rayovac's 9V Lithium battery will only last 10 years in ionization smoke alarms. However, Rayovac's 9V Lithium will extend the life of any 9V lithium device significantly more than a standard alkaline battery.

What is an ionization smoke alarm?

An Ionization smoke alarm uses an ionization chamber, which is an air-filled space between two electrodes, and permits a small, constant current between the electrodes. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and interrupts this current setting off the alarm.

How do I know if I have an ionization smoke alarm?

To determine whether you have an ionization-type or photoelectric-type smoke alarm, look at the label on the back of the alarm. If it's an ionization type there will be a statement on the label similar to the following: "This device contains 0.9 microcurie of americium." If such a statement is not on the label then you have a photoelectric alarm.

What areas require a 10 year smoke alarm battery?

In the US, Oregon state law (ORS 497.297) requires a 10 year smoke alarm battery. Michigan state law (MCL 125.1504c) requires a 5 year smoke alarm battery which can be satisfied by some alkaline batteries but they recommend a Lithium 9V battery. Louisiana state law (R.S. 40:1573 and 1581) requires a 10 year sealed lithium battery smoke detector in one or two family dwellings sold or leased after January 1st, 2011. Many other towns, cities, and municipalities also require 10 year smoke alarm batteries. Please contact your local authorizes to learn more.

How long do smoke alarms last and what are the installation, maintenance, testing and replacement requirements?
  • Installation
    The National Fire Protection Association recommends installing smoke alarms on every level of your home, including the basement, making sure that there is an alarm outside every separate sleeping area. New homes are required to have a smoke alarm in every sleeping room and all smoke alarms must be interconnected.
  • Maintenance
    Regular cleaning of smoke alarms can prevent false alarms caused by the buildup of dust or other contamination such as flies. Photoelectric (optical) type alarms are more susceptible to contamination due to possible interference with the light source and sensor. A vacuum cleaner can be used to clean both ionization and photoelectric alarms externally and internally.
  • Testing
    Test alarms at least monthly by pushing the test button.
  • Replacement
    Smoke alarms become less reliable with time, primarily due to aging of their electronic components, as well as from dust and contamination, making them susceptible to nuisance false alarms. Replace all smoke alarms, including alarms that use long-life 10 year non-replaceable batteries and hard-wired alarms, when they are 10 years old, or sooner if they do not respond properly when tested.

Where can I purchase the Rayovac 9V Lithium Battery

Currently Home Depot and select Walmart stores carry the Rayovac 9 volt Lithium battery. We will be expanding distribution of this new product soon.

The instruction manual with my smoke alarm specifies to replace only with an Ultralife lithium battery. Is the Rayovac 9V Lithium battery an acceptable replacement? If it is, how often should I replace it?

The Rayovac 9V Lithium will work properly in any other smoke alarm requiring the Ultralife lithium battery. Under normal use conditions, the battery should power ionization smoke alarms for up to 10 years. Please note that smoke alarms should be replaced every 10 years, as they lose sensitivity over time due to age and dust.

Also note that many smoke alarms come with recommendations to replace the battery with a specific brand of 9V battery (oftentimes Alkaline or Zinc Carbon chemistries). The Rayovac 9V Lithium is also an acceptable replacement battery in these devices and will power any ionization smoke alarm for up to 10 years.

What are common 9V Battery Applications where I could use the 9V Lithium battery?
  • Household Products
    • Memory backup (e.g. clock radios, telephones, etc.)
    • Digital scales
    • Garage door openers
    • Photographic flash units and light meters
    • Remote controls for RC hobbies
    • Television/VCR/DVD/Stereo remote controls

  • Home and Personal Safety
    • Smoke alarms
    • Baby monitors
    • Emergency exit alarms
    • Carbon monoxide alarms
    • Flood alarms
    • Gas alarms
    • Home security devices
    • Electronic entry systems
    • Wireless security keypads
    • Door/window alarms
    • Glass break detectors
    • Motion sensors
    • Sound detectors
    • Passive infrared detectors
    • Pet containment systems
    • Panic buttons
    • Package tracking transmitters
    • Stun guns
    • Personal defenders

  • Medical
    • Home healthcare equipment
    • ambulatory infusion pumps
    • Blood pressure monitors
    • Blood analyzers
    • Biofeedback systems
    • Bone growth simulators
    • Wireless patient monitors
    • Digital thermometers
    • External pacemakers/programmers
    • Galvanic stimulators
    • Muscle stimulators
    • Heart/Holter monitors
    • Pediatric scales
    • TENS units
    • Pulse oximeters
    • Telemetry systems

  • Wireless Communications
    • Cargo container location beacons
    • Electronic toll collection systems
    • Military training targets
    • Laser tags
    • Remote infrared mice
    • Silo transducers
    • Vehicle/vessel tracking sensors
    • Wireless remote controls

  • Instrumentation
    • Bar code scanners
    • Data recorders
    • Electronic parking meters
    • Digital gauges and scales
    • Force gauges
    • Voltmeters
    • Cable route tracers
    • Capacitance meters
    • Lux meters
    • Multimeters
    • Signal tracers
    • Metal/stud detectors
    • Gas flow correctors
    • Industrial valve actuators
    • Radar Detectors
    • Anti-static strap testers
    • Wireless switches
    • Microfilm cassettes
    • Radiosonde weather balloons
    • Utilities load controllers
    • Point-of-purchase merchandisers
    • Profilometers
    • Video head testers
    • Noise cancellation equipment

  • Marine/Aviation
    • Marine compasses
    • Scuba-diving computers
    • Noise canceling headphones
    • Air samplers
    • Depth finders
    • Digital barometers
    • Global positioning systems
    • Marine smoke alarms
    • Weather measurement instruments

  • Music/Audio
    • Musical effects devices
    • Wireless microphones
    • Fuzz boxes
    • Wah-Wah pedals
    • Wireless preamps
    • Guitar pickups
    • Wireless transceivers
    • Wireless tuners
    • Portable music equipment
    • Metronomes

Can lithium batteries be used in a intrinsically safe circuit? Would a current limiting device be needed?

Lithium batteries can be used in intrinsically safe circuits in some cases. A current limiting device may or may not be necessary depending on the device. The battery itself is usually not rated as being intrinsically safe but is tested as part of the entire device. One example where a Rayovac 9-volt lithium battery is being used in an intrinsically safe device is a Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) carried by firefighters, sometimes called a "fireman down alarm."

What can I expect for a self-discharge rate of your lithium-manganese dioxide batteries? Is the self-discharge mechanism in play when when the battery is in use?

Lithium-manganese dioxide batteries do not exhibit an actual self-discharge mechanism due to the physical separation of the lithium anode and manganese-dioxide cathode. What does occur, however, is a very gradual degradation of the chemistry over time, which can be equated to self-discharge from a capacity loss perspective. In that regard, you can expect a capacity loss of approximately 1.5% per year for our batteries. This loss occurs both in storage and in use.

Will old 9V lithium batteries leak if left in the product instead of discarded?

As a general rule, batteries, including lithium, should not be left in a product once the battery is discharged. The 9 V lithium batteries from Rayovac are hermetically sealed and the chance of leakage is quite small.

We would like to use this battery in desert conditions. What is the performance of the R9VL and UP9VL batteries at 80°C versus one running at 25°C?

From the standpoint of performance hours, or runtime, at 80°C the R9VL and UP9VL batteries will provide the same or slightly more capacity than it would when running at 25°C. However, 80°C is 20°C above the maximum rated operating temperature, which we do not recommend. The result of this elevated operating temperature is the potential leakage of small amounts (generally droplets) of electrolyte and/or permeation of electrolyte solvent through the plastic surfaces of the battery, which will cause reduced performance over time. Extended exposure to elevated temperature can also result in battery swelling, which, depending on the size of the device's battery compartment, may make it difficult to remove the battery.From the standpoint of performance hours, or runtime, at 80°C the R9VL and UP9VL batteries will provide the same or slightly more capacity than it would when running at 25°C. However, 80°C is 20°C above the maximum rated operating temperature, which we do not recommend. The result of this elevated operating temperature is the potential leakage of small amounts (generally droplets) of electrolyte and/or permeation of electrolyte solvent through the plastic surfaces of the battery, which will cause reduced performance over time. Extended exposure to elevated temperature can also result in battery swelling, which, depending on the size of the device's battery compartment, may make it difficult to remove the battery.

We use your 9 volt lithium batteries in medical devices, but our tester is for alkaline. Is there a tester for lithium batteries so we can avoid throwing away batteries that are still good?

Because lithium batteries, such as Rayovac's 9-volt battery, operate at a relatively constant voltage level throughout their life, and do not decline significantly in voltage until they are near end of life, it is not possible to use a battery tester to determine if a lithium battery is still good. For this reason, there are no testers available for use with lithium batteries.

When viewing the voltage curves, you will notice that, depending on the cut-off voltage of the device that the battery is powering, (e.g., a typical device's low voltage alarm might be 7 volts) on average the lithium battery outlasts an alkaline battery by 2 times.

Because it is not possible to use a battery tester to determine the remaining life of a lithium battery, we suggest you run some tests comparing the actual life of alkaline vs. lithium batteries in your devices. Once you determine the lithium battery life under typical usage conditions you can then implement a battery change program based upon the amount of time they have been in use. For example, if you determine in your testing that the lithium battery outlasts an alkaline battery by 3 times, and you typically change alkaline batteries once a day, you can then change the lithium batteries every 3 days. You can modify that change schedule depending on how often the devices actually go into a low battery alarm condition. In this way you will get the most value from using lithium batteries.

I use your 9-volt lithium battery in musical gear but found that it has slightly larger dimensions than a conventional 9-volt battery.

Due to the unique design of aluminum battery housing, which has less-rounded edges than alkaline batteries, the 9V Lithium battery presents a fit problem in a small number of applications. Generally, the fit problem occurs in those devices that were originally designed using the actual dimensions and shape of an alkaline battery, rather than using the maximum dimensional standards established by the American National Standards Institute. Unfortunately there is no way for us to modify the shape of our battery to fit in such devices. We are continuously looking for alternative ways to get the same amount of power into a slightly smaller housing.

What are the airline transportation guidelines I should be aware of with the 9V Lithium battery?

Following is advice from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's web site on flying with battery-powered devices:

  • Batteries pose little risk contained in the devices they power. Taking the battery out of the device does not enhance safety. To be safest, carry the device with you, not in your checked baggage. Do not remove the battery!
  • Carry your battery-powered devices or spare batteries in your carry-on baggage. In the passenger compartment, flight crews can better monitor safety conditions to prevent an incident, and can access fire extinguishers, if an incident does happen.
  • Finally, if you must carry a battery-powered device in your checked baggage, package it to prevent inadvertent activation. Cordless power tools, for instance, should be packed in a protective case, with a trigger lock engaged.
Many travelers like the convenience of readily available spare batteries. It's safe to travel with spare batteries, as long as you follow these simple spare battery tips:
  • Pack spare batteries in carry-on baggage. In the passenger compartment, flight crews can better monitor safety conditions to prevent an incident, and can access fire extinguishers, if an incident does happen.
  • Keep spare batteries in the original retail packaging, to prevent unintentional activation or short-circuiting.
  • For loose batteries, place tape across the battery's contacts to isolate terminals. Isolating terminals prevents short-circuiting.
  • If original packaging is not available, effectively insulate battery terminals by isolating spare batteries from contact with other batteries and metal. Place each battery in its own protective case, plastic bag, or package. Do not permit a loose battery to come in contact with metal objects, such as coins, keys, or jewelry.
  • Use only chargers designed for your type of batteries. If unsure about compatibility, contact the product manufacturer.
  • Take steps to prevent crushing, puncturing, or putting a high degree of pressure on the battery, as this can cause an internal short-circuit, resulting in overheating.
  • Please see the following site for more information about traveling with batteries:

What kind of inspections and tests are performed before a 9V lithium battery is shipped?

Rayovac 9V lithium batteries are thoroughly tested throughout their production process including voltage, impedance, weight, dimensional and visual characteristics. They are manufactured in accordance with both UL (Underwriters Laboratories) and ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standards. Each battery that passes all of our in-process electrical and mechanical tests is then subjected to our final test process including electrical performance: OCV (Open Circuit Voltage), CCV (Closed Circuit Voltage), Terminal Polarity and Impedance. All batteries are also visually inspected.

Why are the Rayovac Batteries brand 9V lithium batteries superior to other battery chemistries and other lithium chemistries in terms of performance and safety?

The Rayovac 9V Lithium Batteries are constructed with a solid-cathode lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2) chemistry, which is one of the highest power and highest energy non-rechargeable chemistries available. Other lithium chemistries, including lithium-sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) and lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2), are constructed with liquid cathode in the gas phase under pressure, which can sometimes lead to leakage and safety problems.

What is the maximum pulse current that the Rayovac 9V lithium battery can supply?

The maximum continuous current rating for the Rayovac 9V Lithium battery is 120 mA. The maximum pulse current at room temperature is 400 mA. As a general guideline, following are the room temperature pulse capabilities of a fresh Rayovac 9V lithium battery based on a maximum 10 second pulse with a 3 minute rest period between pulses. Pulse currents in excess of 400 mA are not recommended."

Pulse (mA) - Typical Voltage (V)

50 – 9.3
100 – 8.9
150 – 8.5
200 – 8.3
250 – 8.0
300 – 7.8
350 – 7.6
400 – 7.4

What is the recommended storage temperature range for the R9VL and UP9VL 9V lithium batteries?

The specified storage temperature range for Rayovac 9V Lithium batteries is -40° C to 60° C.

What should be the range of open circuit voltage (OCV) when measuring a fresh R9VL or UP9VL 9V lithium battery?

The normal OCV range of the Rayovac 9-volt lithium batteries is between 9.6 - 9.9 volts. It is typical for an unused battery's voltage to increase gradually over time, reach as much as 9.95 volts.

Note that OCV will fluctuate by several hundred millivolts due to the measurement method and equipment used, as well as the measurement temperature and the history of storage conditions to which the battery has been exposed before measurement.

Can I connect two Rayovac 9V lithium batteries in parallel in order to double the available capacity for my application? Is it necessary to use protection diodes and/or series resistors to balance the current drain between the batteries?

When connecting two 9-volt batteries in parallel, to prevent reverse current flow we recommend adding a separate protection diode (such as a 1N91) to each battery so that either may discharge into your application, but neither may charge the other. The fundamental disadvantage of using blocking diodes is the inherent voltage drop (0.7 - 1.0V), resulting in a lower available voltage to operate the device. To minimize voltage loss, some circuits use a Schottky diode, which reduce the voltage drop to typically less than 0.5V. We do not recommend using a resistor in series with each battery to help balance the current drain.

Does Rayovac's 9V battery provide a safety feature which will prevent a short circuit from resulting in thermal runaway within a cell, and/or venting?

Rayovac's 9-volt battery is designed for safe operation under a wide range of usage and environmental conditions. A key design feature is the use of Safety Shutdown Separator.

Rayovac's 9-volt battery is constructed using a safety shutdown separator, which upon either an internal or external short circuit, or current overload condition, will prevent thermal runaway within the cell. The cell electrodes, consisting of a lithium anode and manganese dioxide cathode, are separated by a safety shutdown separator, which is a microporous tri-layer membrane with a single layer of polyethylene membrane between two layers of polypropylene membrane. When a cell is overloaded or short circuited, the polyethylene membrane layer melts upon reaching a temperature of 134° C, significantly reducing ion flow (i.e., current). The reduction in current permits the cell to accept a short circuit or overload condition and shutdown without venting. The safety shutdown is a non-reversible process; once the cell has shutdown it is no longer usable.

I need to purchase at least a dozen 1.5 and 3 volt batteries for a home security system. The system manufacturer suggests we purchase the replacement batteries from him, at about $8.50 ea., because of the long life afforded. I have decided to purchase the batteries at a local store. My question is, how much better, in terms of life expectancy, is the best battery offered compared to a lithium battery?

Lithium batteries will last longer than any other battery types, including alkaline and general purpose (lowest cost) batteries. For example, Rayovac's 9-volt lithium battery will last for 10 years in an ionization-type smoke alarm (the most common type), compared to about 3 to 5 years for an alkaline battery and just 1 year for a general purpose battery. In a photoelectric smoke alarm the lithium battery will last anywhere from 3 to 7 years vs. about a year for alkaline. Depending on the specific device, the same approximate ratio holds true for other security devices such as door/window transmitters, infrared motion detectors and glass break detectors. It is generally a good idea to follow the manufacturer's battery recommendations.

I installed Rayovac 9V lithium batteries in my AT&T model 8520 smoke alarms, and the batteries lasted only two years and three months. Is this normal since your batteries have a 10-year life warranty?

Rayovac's 9-volt lithium batteries are warranted for 10 years of operation only in Ionization-type smoke alarms. Commercial alarms, such as the 8520, are Photoelectric, which operate with a significantly higher current drain, and we do not provide a minimum battery life warranty for those types of alarms. The expected battery life in the AT&T 8520 alarm ranges from 18 to 24 months, as compared to 12 months or less with alkaline batteries.

The Rayovac 9-volt battery in my Kidde Nighthawk model KN-COPP-3 carbon monoxide detector died after 5 years. Is this normal? Shouldn't the battery last for 10 years?

The KN-COPP-3 carbon monoxide (CO) detector is an AC powered device and the 9-volt battery is intended to supply a short-term backup during a power outage. According to the detector owner's manual, in the event of a power outage, the (alkaline) battery will continue operating the alarm for at least 20 hours. Rayovac's 9V lithium battery will last for up to five times longer, or about 100 hours in the event of a power outage. It will not last for 10 years in this device. Our 10 year life warranty is for battery use in ionization smoke alarms, and does not apply to CO detectors.

According to the KN-COPP-3 owner's manual it is recommended that the (alkaline) battery is replaced at least every six months. When using our lithium battery, that replacement time can be extended by up to 5 times, or approximately every 2.5 years. At 5 years, your battery lasted about twice as long as expected.

Additionally, the detector is designed to last for 7 years of operation under AC power, at which time it will provide an alert indicating that it should be replaced.

Will old 9V lithium batteries leak if left in the product instead of discarded?

As a general rule, batteries, including lithium, should not be left in a product once the battery is discharged. The 9 V lithium batteries from Rayovac are hermetically sealed and the chance of leakage is quite small.

Still have questions?

Contact our Consumer Services group


Are batteries hazardous waste?

No. Household batteries (Rayovac Heavy Duty and Maximum Alkaline, rechargeable batteries such as Rayovac's Rechargeable Alkaline and Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and fully drained lithium primary batteries) are not hazardous waste. They are qualified as non-hazardous after having undergone government required testing.

Certain others, such as lead acid rechargeables and Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries, are required by regulation to be recycled. If you throw them away then they are a hazardous waste. Recycling logos on these products contain the information you need for finding your recycling outlets.

For specific chemical and technical information go to Safety Data Sheets.

Additional Information
All Alkaline, Rechargeable Alkaline, Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Zinc Chloride (Heavy Duty & General Purpose), and drained lithium primary batteries made by Rayovac are not a USEPA hazardous waste. Zinc Air and Silver Oxide in typical consumer quantities are not USEPA hazardous waste (see below for information pertaining to industrial large quantity generators). Our Material Safety Data Sheets note that non-hazardous wastes are suitable for ordinary disposal methods, providing that there is not some other applicable state or local regulation which directs otherwise. Please view the MSDS pertaining to your particular battery type to find proper disposal methods - Safety Data Sheets.

From time to time some states, counties, or local governments enact regulations naming a specific compound or element hazardous. In effect, this makes many of the consumer products that contain that material potentially covered by the rules. In other cases, "batteries" is used generically when the rule is targeted toward automotive lead acid batteries. In these cases, it takes time to correct the regulatory language. In other cases, the household batteries we produce may be undesirable for the type of waste management chosen by a city or municipality such as when composting or waste-to-energy incineration is used. Those rules do not make the household battery waste hazardous; they just require different management, often making that management more difficult or costly.

Part II :
There are some batteries, such as Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), which are Universal Waste (the term "universal waste" is potentially applicable to waste batteries only if they are considered "hazardous"). Collection of Nickel-Cadmium batteries is required by law. They are not classified as EPA hazardous waste as long as their destination is recycling. For specific information about environmental legislation relating to batteries, please visit NEMA's web site, the EPA, search the US Code of Federal Regulations, in Europe search EUR-LEX, or contact an appropriate government agency. Other types of commonly used batteries, such as silver oxide batteries, are not regulated for the general consumer but may be regulated for the industrial user. Industrial users who may generate over 100 Kilograms per month of certain regulated hazardous wastes or over 1000 kilograms of any type of hazardous waste may need to treat their waste silver oxide batteries as hazardous waste. Silver oxide batteries contain precious metals that may be recycled. For a list of potential recyclers go to Many retailers who replace watch batteries as a customer service will also take small quantities of silver oxide batteries from the consumer for recycling.

Does Rayovac take used batteries back?

We do not take them back. However, Rayovac does fund the RBRC, a take back program for rechargeable batteries.

Additional Information:
Rayovac policy does not allow the return of batteries from consumers and other accounts for several reasons:

  • There is no systematic collection scheme nation-wide handling all batteries, and no method for sorting when collections have occurred.
  • Collection and transportation back to Rayovac facilities would result in a net negative effect on the environment, (fuel use, recoverable material, and safety concerns).
  • Alkaline, Zinc Chloride (Heavy Duty & General Purpose), Rechargeable Alkaline, Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Zinc Air, Silver Oxide, and drained lithium primary batteries are clearly not a hazardous waste as confirmed by EPA methods of testing.
  • Current recycling efforts rely on the customer to sort, ship, and in some cases (such as large volume generators such as Rayovac) pay the cost of recycling. The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Company (RBRC), funded in part by Rayovac, offers free recycling of some battery types, visit them at for more information. However; for other battery types current sorting and recovery technology makes it unfeasible for potential recyclers to set up a process due to cost, limited usefulness of recovered materials, and small volumes. Independent studies have shown that there is a net negative environmental effect of recycling due to collection, transportation, sorting and handling these products.
For more information on battery waste issues, please visit NEMA's website.

When shipping batteries, is there a special shipping name or classification that needs to be used?

Most household batteries do not require any special shipping name or classification by US Department of Transportation regulations.

NOTE: Lithium primary batteries and lithium Ion batteries are the exception to this statement. Please go to question #8 for specific information about shipping regulations that apply to these batteries.

For information on the US Department of Transportation (DOT) article exemption for household batteries see additional Information" below. For information on other transportation, shipping, and regulatory issues, please visit NEMA's web site, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the European Union's EUR-LEX, or contact the appropriate government agency.

Please remember, batteries store energy. Even when you may consider the battery "dead", some small amount of energy may be available. Whenever shipping or carrying batteries, you must insulate them from each other and from shorting situations. Particular attention should be paid when packing batteries and battery containing devices in checked baggage during air travel. Luggage handling or loose connections could cause the battery to dislodge or short.

Additional Information:
Article Exemption for Household Batteries

  • Articles are recognized by the Occupational Safety and health Administration, section 1910.1200 as " "manufactured items which are formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, which have end use functions depending in whole or in part upon their shape for design during end use, and which do not release, or otherwise result in exposure to, hazardous chemicals under normal conditions of use."
  • Flashlights, bulbs, charging stations, and all household batteries (Alkaline, Zinc Chloride (Heavy Duty & General Purpose), Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Rechargeable Alkaline, Zinc Air, Silver, Lithium Ion) are considered Articles, and as such are exempted from the requirement that their use be accompanied by a Safety Data Sheet (SDS).
Can large volumes of batteries be recycled?

You can find a list of recycling firms that may be able to process waste batteries at the National Electrical Manufacturers Association web site, These firms generally charge fees and may require pre-sorting of various batteries. Mixtures of waste batteries will require special packaging and transportation. For details contact the recycling firm of your choice.

Neither NEMA or Rayovac guarantee the list includes all potential recycling firms. The list does not constitute a recommendation regarding listed firms.

How and where can I recycle my batteries?

No general household battery recycling system exists in the USA. Because Lead Acid and Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are required to be recycled to keep them from hazardous waste consideration, special systems have been set up to promote their collection. Both of these products have recycling logos affixed to the battery and a telephone number or address identified on the label to assist you.

Other battery types, while not requiring recycling, can also be recycled. These include Rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries and Lithium Ion batteries.

For your convenience, Rayovac has been a proud supporter of the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC). The RBRC runs a free recycling program for consumers, allowing you to return your used rechargeable batteries at retail locations across the country. For specific information, please visit the RBRC web site.

Also note that Silver Oxide batteries, most often used as watch batteries, can usually be returned at the retail location it was purchased from.

Zinc Air batteries, used in hearing aids, cannot be easily recycled and are considered general household trash when they are drained. Please throw these out in the trash, collecting or saving them can present a choking hazard to children. In case of accidental swallowing or insertion, call the National Capital Poison Center Hotline 1-800-222-1222 or 202-625-3333 (collect) IMMEDIATELY (TTY 800-222-1222).

What are the 2004 US Department of Transportation Lithium air shipping rules?

Rayovac is a member of NEMA or The National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association and NEMA prepared this summary.

On December 15th, 2004, the US Department of Transportation’s Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) issued new rules banning or restricting the transport of non-rechargeable lithium batteries and devices shipped with these batteries aboard passenger aircraft. These new rules become effective on December 29th, 2004 and can be found in their entirety in the December 15 Federal Register, The National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association, which represents US battery manufacturers, has summarized these new rules for the convenience of our customers and consumers. This summary applies to non-rechargeable lithium batteries shipped from, into or within the United States.

Non-rechargeable lithium batteries:
The transport of any amount of non-rechargeable lithium batteries is prohibited aboard passenger aircraft except for personal use as noted below. In addition, the outer shipping container of all packages containing non-rechargeable lithium batteries must be marked with:


This statement must be on a background of contrasting color with the letters:

  • At least 12 mm (0.5 inch) in height on packages having a gross mass of more than 30 kg (66 lbs); or
  • At least 6 mm (0.25 inch) on packages having a gross mass of 30 kg (66 lbs) or less.
  • Battery shipments may continue to be transported by all other modes of transportation including cargo aircraft provided they meet the other requirements of 49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173 and 175.
Devices shipped with non-rechargeable lithium batteries:
In order to qualify for shipment aboard passenger aircraft, the batteries must be packaged in strong packaging and only as many lithium batteries as are needed to power the device may be included. The total allowable weight of the batteries depends on whether the batteries are shipped with the device or inside the device. For batteries packaged inside the device, the net weight of the batteries may not exceed 5 kg. For batteries packaged with the device, the gross weight of the entire package may not exceed 5 kg. In this case, a package is considered on unit of sale, or one device.

There are no new labeling requirements for devices shipped with lithium batteries.

Airline passengers may continue to have non-rechargeable lithium batteries for their equipment and a reasonable amount of spare non-rechargeable lithium batteries for their equipment in their carry-on and checked luggage. In addition, any shipments of non-rechargeable lithium batteries or equipment with non-rechargeable lithium batteries originating prior to December 29th, 2004 are also exempt.

Who do I contact if a battery is swallowed or inserted?

If this is a medical emergency related to a battery or button cell ingestion, immediately call the Poison Control Center at 800-222-1222

For more information, please visit the National Capital Poison Center web site.

For all other emergencies, please contact your physician or emergency services.